Blood Diseases: White and Red Blood Cells, Platelets, and Plasma

Blood is one of the major components of the human body. It is responsible for transporting nutrients and, most importantly, oxygen across the body. It is typically made of RBC (Red Blood Cells), WBC (White Blood Cells), and Platelets.

All these components have their own responsibilities.

While RBC is responsible for carrying oxygen, WBC works against infection and diseases. Platelet typically involves blood clotting.

In case any of these does not work properly, it hampers the overall functioning of our body. Blood diseases typically involve disorders in these blood components. Here, in this article, I will guide you on that.

But before digging deeper into different types of blood diseases, let’s have a basic knowledge of what blood diseases or blood disorders are.

What Are Blood Diseases?

Blood disease or blood cell disorder is a condition where there is a problem with your RBC or red blood cells, WBC or white blood cells, or platelets (the smaller circulating cells). Platelets play major roles when it comes to blood clot formation.

All these 3 types of blood cells form in the bone marrow.

Now, if you are wondering what bone marrow actually is, it is the soft tissue that is present inside your bones.

Red blood cells are responsible for transporting oxygen to all your organs and tissues. On the other hand, white blood cells assist your body in fighting infections. Now, come to the platelets that help your blood to clot.

In case you have any blood disease or blood cell disorder, it will impair both the function and formation of one or many types of blood cells.


On the basis of the type of blood cell disease you’ve got, the symptoms might vary. So, here I am mentioning the common symptoms of red blood cell diseases.

  • Muscle weakness.
  • Trouble concentrating from lack of oxygen in the brain.
  • Shortness of breath.
  • Fatigue.
  • A fast heartbeat.

Now, let’s check the common symptoms of WBC or white blood cells.

  • Malaise or a general feeling of being unwell.
  • Fatigue.
  • Chronic infections.
  • Unexplained weight loss.

Now, check out the platelet disorders’ common symptoms

  • Unexplained bleeding from the gums or nosebleeds.
  • Skin that bruises easily.
  • After a cut or injury, blood doesn’t clot.
  • Sores or cuts which don’t heal or heal too slowly.

Blood Diseases List

Here is a list of the most common blood disorders.

Let’s Start With RBC Or Red Blood Cell Diseases.

1. Anemia

When there is a lack of iron in your blood, anemia commonly occurs. In order to produce the protein hemoglobin, your body needs iron. Hemoglobin is the substance that assists RBC in carrying oxygen throughout the body.

There are typically 3 types of anemia,

  • Iron Deficiency Anemia: When your body doesn’t have enough iron, it occurs. Usually, you might feel tired and short of breath as RBC will not be able to transport adequate oxygen to all your cells.
  • Aplastic Anemia: It is a rare but indeed serious condition where the bone marrow stops making enough new blood cells. At any age, it can occur all of a sudden or slowly. In this health condition, you can feel tired, and your body will become incapable of fighting infections or uncontrolled bleeding.
  • Pernicious Anemia: It is an Autoimmune condition where the body becomes unable to absorb enough vitamin B-12. As a result, the RBC count decreases. This is also named “pernicious” as it used to be untreatable and fatal.
  • AHA: Also called Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia, where your immune system will destroy RBCs faster than your body is capable of replacing them. As a result, you will have too few red blood cells.
  • Sickle Cell Anemia: SCA is a particular type of anemia where the affected RBC takes the sickle shape. People with sickle cell anemia have RBCs with abnormal hemoglobin molecules due to a genetic mutation. This leaves the cells curved and rigid. All these sickle-shaped hemoglobin can not carry much oxygen to your body. They can be stuck in your blood vessels and block the blood flow to your organs.

2. Polycythemia Vera

This is a blood cancer that is caused by a gene mutation. In case you have this blood disease, your bone marrow makes too many RBCs. as a result, your blood becomes thick and flows more slowly, putting you at risk of blood clots, which can result in strokes and heart attacks.

Till now, there is no known cure. Although proper treatment involves phlebotomy or removing blood from your veins along with medications, the condition can be improved.

3. Thalassemia

This is a group of inherited blood disorders. Genetic mutation is the main reason behind this, which prevents the normal production of hemoglobin. If the RBCs don’t have enough hemoglobin, they will not be able to carry oxygen to all the parts of the body.

As a result, the organs will not function properly. This specific disorder also can cause the below-mentioned things.

  • Heart problems.
  • Enlarged spleen.
  • Bone deformities.
  • Developmental and growth delays in children.

Now, I Will Talk About Blood Diseases Related To WBC Or White Blood Cells.

1. Lymphoma

This is cancer, which occurs in the body’s lymphatic system. Here, the WBCs change and grow out of control. There are 2 major types of lymphoma; 

  • Hodgkin’s lymphoma,
  • Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma.

2. MDS Or Myelodysplastic Syndrome

MDS is a condition that affects WBCs in your bone marrow. Here, the body creates too many immature cells that are called blasts. The blasts multiply fast and then crowd out the healthy and mature cells. This disease can progress quite fast or slowly and also lead to leukemia.

3. Leukemia

This is another form of blood cancer where malignant WBCs multiply inside the bone marrow of your body. Leukemia might be either chronic or acute. Chronic leukemia accelerates more slowly.

Well, It Is Time To Have A Look At The Platelet Disorders.

1. Common Disorders

There are some common platelet blood diseases that I will talk about here.

  • Too Many Platelets: In case you have too many platelets in your blood, the blood will clot and might form or block a major artery. As a result, you will get a heart attack or stroke.
  • Not Enough Platelets: In case you have too few platelets, it also is dangerous as a small cut or injury can cause serious blood loss.
  • Platelets Don’t Clot properly: Sometimes, the deformed platelets might stick to other blood cells or also the walls of your blood vessels and fail to clot properly. This also can lead to dangerous blood loss.

2. Von Willebrand Disease

This is the most common inherited bleeding blood disease. A deficiency of a particular protein that assists in blood clotting causes this disease. The Protein is called VWF or von Willebrand factor.

3. Hemophilia

Probably, it is the best-known blood clotting disease. In most cases, males get affected by this. The most serious complication of hemophilia is prolonged and excessive bleeding. This bleeding can be outside or inside of your body.

And the most dangerous part is that this bleeding can start for no apparent reason. Now, come to the treatment part that involves a particular hormone named desmopressin for mild type A. this can promote the release and production of more of the reduced clotting factor along with the infusions of plasma or blood for types B and C.

4. Acquired Platelet Function Disorders

Some particular medical conditions and drugs can affect the functioning of platelets. So, it is always best to consult with your doctor before taking any medication. There are some common drugs that might affect platelets, in case you are taking them on a long-term basis.

The CHA, or the Canadian Hemophilia Association, listed the following medications as dangerous.

  • Antihistamines.
  • Anesthetics.
  • Blood thinners.
  • Heart drugs.
  • Antidepressants.
  • Some antibiotics.
  • NSAIDs or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
  • Aspirin.

5. Primary Thrombocythemia

It is a rare disorder that might lead to increased blood clotting. As a result, you become exposed to a higher risk of heart attack or stroke. The disorder happens when your bone marrow creates too many platelets.

⦿ Blood Borne Diseases

Bloodborne diseases are not blood diseases; they are diseases that get infected through blood. Typically they are caused by pathogenic microorganisms that are present in blood or any other body fluids.

Here are some most common bloodborne diseases.

  • Malaria.
  • Brucellosis.
  • Syphilis.
  • Hepatitis B and C.
  • HIV or Human Immunodeficiency Virus.
⦿ Rare Blood Diseases

Now, have a look at the rarest blood diseases.

  • PNH or Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobin.
  • Mastocytosis.
  • Eosinophilia.
  • Essential thrombocythemia.
  • Myelofibrosis.
  • Polycythemia vera (PCV).

To Conclude

I believe after going through this article; you get the information about blood diseases that you were searching for. In case you still have anything to know about, let me know in the comment section, and I will come up with the answer as soon as possible.

Till then, stay healthy.

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